This randomized, nonblinded laboratory animal study reports how dynamic alveolar heterogeneity is influenced by 2 modes of mechanical ventilation (low tidal-volume ventilation and airway pressure release ventilation), using in vivo microscopy to directly measure alveolar size distributions.
In this study, rats were randomized to controlled mandatory ventilation or airway pressure release ventilation to determine whether airway pressure release ventilation affects alveolar recruitment and microstrain in acute lung injury.
This Surgical Innovation article discusses the use of ambulatory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for treating patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Musallam et al evaluate the association between current and past smoking on the risk of postoperative mortality and vascular and respiratory events in patients undergoing major surgery.
This medical record review describes the use of computed tomography in identifying the mortality risk in patients with pneumomediastinum due to blunt trauma.
Emr and colleagues aimed to demonstrate that (1) mechanical ventilation with tidal volume and positive end-expiratory pressure settings used routinely on surgery patients causes acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome in normal rats and (2) preemptive application of airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) blocks drivers of lung injury and prevents acute respiratory distress syndrome.