Accepted for Publication: July 11, 2013.
Published Online: March 5, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.4.
Study concept and design: Glance, Li, Eaton, Dick.
Acquisition of data: Glance.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Glance, Kellermann, Osler, Li, Mukamel, Lustik, Dick.
Drafting of the manuscript: Glance, Dick.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Glance, Osler, Mukamel, Dick.
Obtained funding: Glance, Mukamel, Eaton.
Administrative, technical, and material support: Glance, Lustik.
Study supervision: Glance.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine.
Role of the Sponsor: The funder had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The ACS NSQIP and the hospitals participating in the ACS NSQIP are the source of the data used herein; they have not verified and are not responsible for the statistical validity of the data analysis or the conclusions derived by the authors.