Accepted for Publication: November 18, 2013.
Published Online: June 11, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.18.
Study concept and design: Sacks, Dawes, Russell, Lin, Maggard-Gibbons, Winograd, Tomlinson, Tillou, Shew, Hiyama, Cryer, Ko.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Sacks, Dawes, Russell, Maggard-Gibbons, Winograd, Chung, Tomlinson, Tillou, Hiyama, Cryer, Brunicardi, Hiatt.
Drafting of the manuscript: Sacks, Dawes, Cryer.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Sacks, Dawes.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Winograd, Chung, Cryer.
Study supervision: Russell, Lin, Maggard-Gibbons, Tomlinson, Tillou, Shew, Hiyama, Brunicardi, Ko.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented as a podium presentation in the Quality Outcomes and Costs I session at the American College of Surgeons Clinical Congress Meeting; October 2, 2012; Chicago, Illinois.