In 1939, Lloyd-Davies, of St. Mark's Hospital, London, England, reported that combined abdominoperineal resection of the rectum could be done by two surgical teams working synchronously.12 He mentioned in his article that "both Kirschner and Devine have developed methods on similar lines," but he gave no details and no references.
Since this first report, the operation has grown in popularity in the British Isles9,13 and has found advocates in Europe,1,3,7 South America,5,6 and the United States of America.4,11,14
Most surgeons apply the two-team technique only for resection of the rectum, but Howkins, of London, uses it for radical hysterectomy,10 and Canónico, of Buenos Aires, for pelvic exenteration.5,6
Most of these reports deal with the details of the technique and its advantages and disadvantages; they do not include comparative studies.
In 1949, Warren Cole, of The University of Illinois, reported to the Chicago Surgical Society the highlights of a clinical trip