Accepted for Publication: March 11, 2011.
Published Online: June 20, 2011. doi:10.1001/archsurg.2011.141
Author Contributions: Dr Greenberg had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Greenberg, Lipsitz, Jha, Gawande, and J. C. Weeks. Acquisition of data: Greenberg, Neville, and C. Weeks. Analysis and interpretation of data: Greenberg, Lipsitz, Neville, In, Hevelone, Porter, Jha, Gawande, Schrag, and J. C. Weeks. Drafting of the manuscript: Greenberg, In, Porter, and C. Weeks. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Greenberg, Lipsitz, Neville, Hevelone, Porter, Jha, Gawande, Schrag, and J. C. Weeks. Statistical analysis: Greenberg, Lipsitz, Neville, In, and Hevelone. Obtained funding: Greenberg and J. C. Weeks. Administrative, technical, and material support: Neville, In, Porter, and C. Weeks. Study supervision: Greenberg and J. C. Weeks.
Financial Disclosure: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported in part by a grant from the American Surgical Association Foundation.
Role of the Sponsors: The sponsor had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: This study used the linked SEER-Medicare database. The interpretation and reporting of these data are the sole responsibility of the authors.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the efforts of the Applied Research Program, National Cancer Institute; the Office of Research, Development and Information, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; Information Management Services, Inc; and the SEER program tumor registries in the creation of the SEER-Medicare database. Scott Regenbogen, MD, MPH, contributed to study conception and design, and Katherine Corso, MPH, assisted with manuscript preparation.