Accepted for Publication: April 27, 2011.
Published Online: September 19, 2011. doi:10.1001/archsurg.2011.254
Author Contributions: Dr Haider had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Haider, Ong’uti, Efron, Haut, Schneider, Powe, and Cornwell. Acquisition of data: Haider and Ong’uti. Analysis and interpretation of data: Ong’uti, Oyetunji, Crandall, Scott, Haut, Schneider, Cooper, and Cornwell. Drafting of the manuscript: Haider, Ong’uti, Oyetunji, and Scott. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Haider, Ong’uti, Efron, Crandall, Haut, Schneider, Powe, Cooper, and Cornwell. Statistical analysis: Haider, Ong’uti, Oyetunji, Crandall, and Schneider. Obtained funding: Haider. Administrative, technical, and material support: Scott, Powe, and Cornwell. Study supervision: Schneider and Cornwell.
Financial Disclosure: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grant NIGMS K23GM093112-01), the American College of Surgeons C. James Carrico Fellowship for the Study of Trauma and Critical Care, and the Hopkins Center for Health Disparities Solutions (Dr Haider).
Previous Presentation: This paper was presented at the 82nd Annual Meeting of the Pacific Coast Surgical Association; February 20, 2011; Scottsdale, Arizona, and is published after peer review and revision.