Accepted for Publication: October 28, 2011.
Published Online: January 16, 2012. doi:10.1001/archsurg.2011.1698
Author Contributions: Dr Kwon had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Kwon, Thompson, Florence, Maier, Whiteford, and Flum. Acquisition of data: Kwon, Florence, Rogers, and Flum. Analysis and interpretation of data: Kwon, Thompson, Florence, Maier, McIntyre, Farrohki, Whiteford, and Flum. Drafting of the manuscript: Kwon, Thompson, and Flum. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kwon, Thompson, Florence, Maier, McIntyre, Rogers, Farrohki, Whiteford, and Flum. Statistical analysis: Kwon. Obtained funding: Flum. Administrative, technical, and material support: Kwon, Thompson, Rogers, Farrohki, and Flum. Study supervision: Thompson, Maier, McIntyre, Farrohki, and Flum.
Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program (SCOAP) Collaborative Investigators: Steve Kwon, MD, Karen Horvath, MD, Wendy Klamp, MHA, David R. Flum, MD, MPH, University of Washington; Michael Florence, MD, Marc Horton, MD, Swedish Medical Center; Morrie Johnson, MD, Skagit Valley Medical Center; Gregory Jurkovich, MD, Harborview Medical Center; Kristin Peterson, JD, Coopersmith Health Law Group; Terence Quigley, MD, Northwest Hospital Medical Center; Terry Rogers, MD, Foundation for Health Care Quality; Richard Thirlby, MD, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle; Peter Grigas, RN, BHSA, CTQM, CPHQ, Valley Medical Center, Renton; Ellen T. Farrokhi, MD, Providence Regional Medical Center, Everett, Washington; William Raum, MD, PhD, Legacy Health System, Portland, Oregon.
Financial Disclosure: None reported.
Funding/Support: The Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program, a program of the Foundation for Healthcare Quality, is supported by a grant from Washington Life Science Discovery Fund and by grant 1 R01 HS 20025-01 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding agencies had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.