Accepted for Publication: January 30, 2012.
Published Online: April 16, 2012. doi:10.1001/archsurg.2012.353
Author Contributions: Drs Morikawa, Tanaka, Kuchiba, and Nosho contributed equally. Drs Tanaka and Ogino had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Swanson, Schrag, Fuchs, and Ogino. Acquisition of data: Morikawa, Nosho, Yamauchi, Chan, Schrag, Fuchs, and Ogino. Analysis and interpretation of data: Morikawa, Tanaka, Kuchiba, Hornick, Swanson, Chan, Meyerhardt, Huttenhower, Schrag, Fuchs, and Ogino. Drafting of the manuscript: Morikawa, Tanaka, Nosho, Yamauchi, Schrag, Fuchs, and Ogino. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Morikawa, Kuchiba, Hornick, Swanson, Chan, Meyerhardt, Huttenhower, Schrag, Fuchs, and Ogino. Statistical analysis: Tanaka, Kuchiba, Nosho, Huttenhower, Schrag, and Fuchs, Obtained funding: Chan, Schrag, Fuchs, and Ogino. Administrative, technical, and material support: Morikawa, Fuchs, and Ogino. Study supervision: Swanson, Huttenhower, Schrag, Fuchs, and Ogino.
Financial Disclosure: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grants P01 CA87969, P01 CA55075, P50 CA127003 (Dr Fuchs), R01 CA151993 (Dr Ogino), and R01 CA137178 (Dr Chan) from the National Institutes of Health; the Bennett Family Fund for Targeted Therapies Research; and the Entertainment Industry Foundation through the National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance.
Disclaimer: The content of this article is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Cancer Institute or the National Institutes of Health.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding agencies had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analysis, or interpretation of the data; in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication; or in the writing of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank the participants and staff of the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study for their valuable contributions, as well as the following state cancer registries for their help: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming.