Accepted for Publication: November 4, 2011.
Author Contributions: Study concept and design: Kwon, Billingham, and Flum. Acquisition of data: Kwon, Frankhouse, Horvath, McNevin, Simons, Symons, and Flum. Analysis and interpretation of data: Kwon, Morris, Billingham, Horvath, Steele, Thirlby, Whiteford, and Flum. Drafting of the manuscript: Kwon, Steele, and Flum. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kwon, Morris, Billingham, Frankhouse, Horvath, McNevin, Simons, Symons, Steele, Thirlby, and Whiteford. Statistical analysis: Kwon and Symons. Obtained funding: Flum. Administrative, technical, and material support: Symons and Flum. Study supervision: Frankhouse, Thirlby, Whiteford, and Flum.
Financial Disclosure: None reported.
Funding/Support: SCOAP is a program of the Foundation for Healthcare Quality and is supported in part by grant 1 R01 HS 20025-01 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Washington State Life Sciences Discovery Fund.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding agencies had no role in design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented at the American Surgical Congress; February 1, 2011; Huntington Beach, California.