Postoperative adjuvant treatment was dependent on the patient's general condition or adherence to therapy and the preference of the physician. Postoperative 5-fluorouracil–based chemotherapy was considered for all the patients with T3-4 or node-positive disease.8,10- 11 Of the 546 patients, 398 (72.9%) received adjuvant therapy (355 chemotherapy and 43 chemoradiotherapy). Five chemotherapeutic regimens were used: (1) fluorouracil and leucovorin calcium (6 cycles of a monthly bolus of intravenous fluorouracil, 400-425 mg/m2 daily, on days 1-5 and leucovorin calcium, 20 mg/m2 daily, on days 1-5; n = 227), (2) tegafur and uracil (6 cycles of tegafur and uracil, 300 mg/m2 daily, for 28 days; n = 35), (3) doxifluridine (6 cycles of 600 mg/m2 daily for 28 days; n = 9), (4) capecitabine (8 cycles of 1250 mg/m2 twice daily for 14 days followed by 7 days of rest at the conclusion of each cycle; n = 78), and (5) oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (12 cycles of oxaliplatin, 85 mg/m2, on day 1 and leucovorin calcium, 200 mg/m2, as a 2-hour infusion on day 1 and fluorouracil, 400 mg/m2, as a bolus and a 600-mg/m2 22-hour infusion on days 1 and 2 bimonthly; n = 6). Postoperative radiotherapy consisted of 45 to 50.4 Gy (to convert gray to rad, multiply by 100) in 25 to 28 fractions delivered to the pelvis using a 4-field box technique. Of the 281 patients with rectal cancer, 43 (15.3%) received postoperative chemoradiotherapy. The patients were followed up at 3-month intervals for 2 years, at 6-month intervals for the next 3 years, and annually thereafter. On a semiannual basis or when recurrence was suspected, follow-up examinations were performed, and these included a clinical history, physical examination, serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) assay, chest radiography or computed tomography, abdominopelvic computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, colonoscopy, and positron emission tomography scanning, if available.