Accepted for Publication: March 9, 2012.
Published Online: May 21, 2012. doi:10.1001 /archsurg.2012.699
Author Contributions:Study concept and design: Anderson, Lassiter, Bickler, Talamini, and Chang. Acquisition of data: Anderson and Chang. Analysis and interpretation of data: Anderson, Lassiter, Bickler, and Chang. Drafting of the manuscript: Anderson, Bickler, and Chang. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Anderson, Lassiter, Bickler, Talamini, and Chang. Statistical analysis: Anderson, Lassiter, and Chang. Obtained funding: Anderson, Bickler, Chang, and Talamini. Administrative, technical, and material support: Bickler and Chang. Study supervision: Bickler and Chang.
Financial Disclosure: None reported.
Funding/Support: Ms Anderson was supported by award T35HL007491 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Dr Chang is partially supported by SCANNER grant R01 HS19913-01 awarded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Drs Chang and Bickler are also partially supported by the Medical Education Partnership Initiative grant 1R24TW008910-01 awarded by the National Institutes of Health Fogarty International Center.
Previous Presentation: This paper was presented as a podium presentation at the 83rd Annual Meeting of the Pacific Coast Surgical Association; February 20, 2012; Napa Valley, California, and is published after peer review and revision.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute or the National Institutes of Health.
Additional Contributions: The NSQIP and its participating hospitals are the source of data used in this research; they have not verified and are not responsible for the statistical validity of the data analysis or conclusions of the authors.