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Arch Surg. 2003;138(1):. doi:10.1001/archsurg.138.1.0.
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To promote the art and science of surgery by publishing relevant peer-reviewed clinical and basic science information to assist the surgeon in optimizing patient care. The Archives of Surgery will also serve as a forum for the discussion of issues that involve ethics, teaching, surgical history, and socioeconomic concerns.

Approved by the Editorial Board, Archives of Surgery, July 19, 1996.


Manuscript Submission: All manuscripts should be sent to Editor, Archives of Surgery, c/o Department of Surgery, University of California–San Francisco, East Bay, 1411 E 31st St, Oakland, CA 94602, USA; short manuscripits without tables or figures, letters to the editor, and book reviews may be sent electronically to archivesofsurgery@earthlink.net

Instructions for Authors: Available online at http://www.archsurg.com.


The Archives of Surgery is a member of the consortium of AMA journals listed below.


Jann Ingmire; phone: (312) 464-5262; e-mail: jamaarchmedia@ama-assn.org.


Archives of Surgery is available online at http://www.archsurg.com.


Author and Educational Reprints: Journal Products coordinator: Joseph R. Rekash; phone: (312) 464-4594; fax: (312) 464-4849. Orders of individual articles must be for a minimum of 100 reprints. Commercial Reprints: Wanda Bartolotta; phone: (718) 946-7424; fax: (718) 946-7372; e-mail: Wanda_Bartolotta@ama-assn.org. Orders of individual articles must be for a minimum of 300 reprints.


Information about obtaining permission to republish, reprint, or adapt material published in Archives of Surgery is available from Rhonda Bailey; phone: (312) 464-2513; fax: (312) 464-5835; e-mail: Rhonda_Bailey@ama-assn.org.


Copies of individual articles are available online at http://www.archsurg.com and from the following: Infotrieve, phone: (800) 422-4633; fax: (310) 208-5971; URL: http://www.infotrieve.com; e-mail: orders@infotrieve.com; Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), phone: (800) 603-4367; fax: (856) 787-1679; URL: http://www.isidoc.com; e-mail: service@isidoc.com; Dialog Information Services; Proquest; Ovid Technologies, Inc; and EBSCO.


Information about advertising is available from the following sales representatives and online at http://www.archsurg.com.

Account Manager: John P. Cahill (nationally); phone: (708) 352-0322 Manager, Marketing Services: Nancy Bell; phone: (973) 263-9191 ext 216 Advertising Office: J. P. Cahill & Associates, 341 S Waiola Avenue, La Grange, IL 60525; phone: (708) 352-0322 Classified Advertising: Thalia Moss, 515 N State St, Chicago, IL 60610; phone: (312) 464-4169; e-mail: Thalia_Moss@ama-assn.org.


Advertisements in this issue have been reviewed to comply with the principles governing advertising in AMA publications. A copy of these principles is available on request and online at http://www.archsurg.com. The appearance of advertising in AMA publications is not an AMA guarantee or endorsement of the product or the claims made for the product by the manufacturer.


Postmaster, send all address changes to Archives of Surgery, c/o the AMA Unified Service Center, American Medical Association, 515 N State St, Chicago, IL 60610. Notification of address changes must be made at least 6 weeks in advance; include both old and new addresses and a recent mailing label if sending via mail.


Subscription rates are shown in the table below. For service in the US and Americas, inquiries on pricing, address changes, missing issues, subscription billing, subscription renewal, and back issues, contact the AMA Unified Service Center, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. AMA members: phone: (800) 262-3211; e-mail: msc@ama-assn.org. Other physicians and nonphysician customers, including subscription agents: phone: (800) 262-2350 or (312) 670-7827; fax: (312) 464-5831; e-mail: ama-subs@ama-assn.org.

Mail inquiries: Unified Service Center, American Medical Association, PO Box 10946, Chicago, IL 60610-0946. For subscribers with mailing addresses outside the US and the Americas: Contact JAMA/Archives Journals, American Medical Association, Tower House, Sovereign Park, Market Harborough, Leicestershire LE15 9EF, UK. Phone: +44 1858-438880; fax: +44 1858-434958; e-mail: ama@subscription.co.uk.

The ARCHIVES OF SURGERY (ISSN 0004-0010) is published monthly by the American Medical Association, 515 N State St, Chicago, IL 60610-0946, and is an official publication of the Association. The ARCHIVES OF SURGERY reaches more than 21 500 readers in over 71 countries each month. Periodicals postage paid at Chicago, IL, and at additional mailing offices. GST registration number 12622 5556 RT. Canada Post International Publications Mail (Canadian Distribution) Sales Agreement No. 319309. Printed in the USA.

Official publication of the New England Surgical Society, Pacific Coast Surgical Association, and Western Surgical Association.


Editor: Claude H. Organ, Jr, MD University of California–San Francisco, East Bay 1411 E 31st St Oakland, CA 94602 archivesofsurgery@earthlink.net

Associate Editor, CME Section Editor: Gerald W. Peskin, MD Oakland, Calif

Section Editor, Operative Techniques: Jack Pickleman, MD Chicago, Ill

Web Editor: Grace S. Rozycki, MD Atlanta, Ga

Editorial Assistant: Margaret M. Kosiba Emeryville, Calif Phone: (510) 437-4940 Fax: (510) 534-5639 archivesofsurgery@earthlink.net


Timothy R. Billiar, MD, Pittsburgh, Pa Richard J. Bold, MD, Sacramento, Calif Jo Buyske, MD, Philadelphia, Pa Laurence Y. Cheung, MD, Kansas City, Kan Karen E. Deveney, MD, Portland, Ore Susan Galandiuk, MD, Louisville,Ky Clive S. Grant, MD, Rochester, Minn Alden H. Harken, MD, Denver, Colo J. Michael Henderson, MD, Cleveland, Ohio Eddie L. Hoover, MD, Buffalo, NY Joseph A. Ignatius, MD, Santa Barbara, Calif Danny O. Jacobs, MD, MPH, Omaha, Neb Stephen F. Lowry, MD, New Brunswick, NJ Ronald V. Maier, MD, Seattle, Wash David S. Mulder, MD, Montreal, Quebec Thomas A. Mustoe, MD, Chicago, Ill J. Patrick O'Leary, MD, New Orleans, La Mark L. Silen, MD, MBA, Portland, Ore Bruce E. Stabile, MD, Torrance, Calif Robert W. Thompson, MD, St Louis, Mo Steven D. Wexner, MD, Fort Lauderdale, Fla Michael E. Zenilman, MD, Brooklyn, NY


Licinio Angelini, MD, Rome, Italy Leigh W. Delbridge, MD, Sydney, NSW, Australia S. T. Fan, MB, BS, MS, Hong Kong, China Ch. Herfarth, MD, Heidelberg, Germany Kazutomo Inoue, MD, Kyoto, Japan Jin-Pok Kim, MD, Seoul, Korea Raj Mohan Nambiar, MBBS, Singapore Hector Orozco, MD, Mexico City, Mexico Bernard F. Ribeiro, MB, BS, FRCS, London, England Manuel Trias, MD, PhD, Barcelona, Spain


Dean Lewis, MD 1920-1940 Waltman Walters, MD 1941-1942; 1946-1961 Lester Dragstedt, MD 1943-1945 J. Garrett Allen, MD 1962-1969 Richard Warren, MD 1970-1976 Arthur Baue, MD 1977-1988


Offices: 515 N State St, Chicago, IL 60610

Catherine D. DeAngelis, MD, MPH Editor in Chief, Scientific Publications & Multimedia Applications Cheryl Iverson Managing Editor


Department Director: Paula Glitman Copyediting Manager: Brenda Gregoline Freelance Copyediting Manager: Diane L. Cannon Freelance Copyediting Coordinators: Lauren B. Fischer, Connie Manno Editorial Systems Managers: Paul Frank, Monica Mungle Systems Programmer/Internet Specialist: J. D. Neff Senior Copy Editor: Vickey Golden Copy Editors: Juana N. Llorens, Rachel Novickas, Cheryl L. Tobey, Rachel Bodzin Young Editorial Assistant: Wanda Hill


Assistant to the Editor: Helga Fritz


Director: Margaret Winker, MD Electronic Media Department Director: Michelle Kurzynski Associate Web Editors: Katherine Behar, Erin M. Giannini Web Office Manager: Marla A. Hall


Group Publisher: Nawin Gupta, PhD VP Office Staff: James Clinton, Geoffrey Flick, Terri Hanley, Maureen Archey, Anna Goins International Business and Development: William Fox (director), Norman Frankel, PhD, Rhonda Bailey, Millette Jackson-Bates Online Business and CME: Bonnie Chi-Lum, MD, MPH (publisher)


Director: Curt Reilly Managers: Vida Damijonaitis, Kim Krebs, Thalia Moss Staff: Kathy Braun, Ana Dirksen, Sandra Garzon, Christine Hearne, Amy Postlewait, Trina Rizzo, Barbara Van Wagner


Director: Peter J. Murphy Sales Representatives: John P. Cahill Marketing Services: Nancy Bell Staff: Victoria Anne Acot, Susan Lovenberg, Mirna Monal, Debra Ann Sardo


Director: Mark Kuhns Staff: Wanda Bartolotta, Joseph Rekash


Division Director: Vanessa Hayden Directors: Karen Adams-Taylor, Paul Gasiecki, Sue Sherrill Managers: David Antos, Karen Branham, Debbie Camp, Diane Darnell, Karl Elvin, Betty Frigerio, Linda Gardner, Mary Ellen Johnston, Mark Matura, Michael McGraw, Phil O'Leary, Susan Price, Charl Richey, Alfred Tomaselli, Carmela Ware Advertising and Production Services: Linda Alexander, LaWanda Brown, Susan Chiara, Mary Anne Donley, Euwanaha Joiner-Smith, Brian McCartney, Sean O'Donnell, Noemi Olmo, Carole Piszker, Sarah Powell, Denise Steinhauser, Ellen Yoshihara Circulation Processing: Bernadette Bauer, Julie Burton, Rosa Eng, Felicia Kyles, Lawrence Majkszak, Kathryn Osten Composition and New Media: Rebecca Aiken, Clifford Barrett, Gail Barrett, Regina Brownlee, Brenda Chandler-Grayer, Rowena Dagang, Amy Evers, Mary Ann Kuranda, Sandra Lopez, John Marcinek, Bruce McGregor, La'son Diggs Sledge, Angela Smits Graphics: Joe Amft, Fred Furtner, Carolyn Hall, Maria Kowalkowski, Chris Meyer, JoAnne Weiskopf Proofreading: Carol Joy Farrell, Daniel James, Judith A. Literskis, Teresa H. Omiotek, Barbara Wojtowicz, Agnes A. Zarkadas

All articles published, including editorials, letters, and book reviews, represent the opinions of the authors and do not reflect the policy of the American Medical Association, the Editorial Board, or the institution with which the author is affiliated, unless this is clearly specified.

Copyright 2003 by the American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Reproduction without permission is prohibited.


Michael D. Maves, MD, MBA Executive Vice President, Chief Executive Officer Robert A. Musacchio, PhD Senior Vice President, Publishing & Business Services




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