Accepted for Publication: April 12, 2012.
Published Online: July 16, 2012. doi:10.1001 /archsurg.2012.1560
Author Contributions:Study concept and design: Brenner, Wooford, and Scalea. Acquisition of data: Brenner and Wooford. Analysis and interpretation of data: Brenner, Stein, Hu, Kufera, and Scalea. Drafting of the manuscript: Brenner, Kufera, Wooford, and Scalea. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Brenner, Stein, Hu, Kufera, Wooford, and Scalea. Statistical analysis: Brenner, Stein, Hu, Kufera, and Wooford. Administrative, technical, and material support: Scalea. Study supervision: Scalea.
Financial Disclosure: None reported.
Funding/Support: This research was funded in part by grants W81XWH-07-2-0118 and FA8650-11-2-6D01 from the US Department of Defense.
Previous Presentation: This paper was presented at the 83rd Annual Meeting of the Pacific Coast Surgical Association; February 18, 2012; Napa Valley, California, and is published after peer review and revision.
Additional Contributions: We thank Betsy Kramer, RN, and Melissa Binder, BS, for providing trauma registry information, as well as Karen Murdoch, RPT, Keng-Hao Liu, PhD, and Xiong Wei, PhD, for their technical support.