Accepted for Publication: February 6, 2012.
Author Contributions:Study concept and design: Maciejewski, Kahwati, Henderson, and Arterburn. Acquisition of data: Maciejewski and Henderson. Analysis and interpretation of data: Maciejewski, Livingston, Smith, Kahwati, Henderson, and Arterburn. Drafting of the manuscript: Maciejewski and Arterburn. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Maciejewski, Livingston, Smith, Kahwati, Henderson, and Arterburn. Statistical analysis: Maciejewski, Smith, and Henderson. Obtained funding: Maciejewski, Henderson, and Arterburn. Administrative, technical, and material support: Maciejewski, Kahwati, Henderson, and Arterburn. Study supervision: Maciejewski and Arterburn.
Financial Disclosure: Dr Maciejewski has received consultation funds from Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Novartis, and the Surgical Review Corporation and owns stock in Amgen. Dr Livingston has received consulting funds from Texas Instruments and serves as a contributing editor to JAMA. Dr Arterburn receives research funding and has received salary support as a medical editor for the not-for-profit (501[c]) Foundation for Informed Medical Decision Making (http://www.fimdm.org), which develops content for patient education programs. The Foundation has an arrangement with a for-profit company, Health Dialog, to coproduce and market these programs to health care organizations. Dr Arterburn was formerly with the Cincinnati VA, and Dr Livingston was formerly with the Dallas VA.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grants IIR 05-201 and SHP 08-137 from the Office of Research and Development, Health Services Research and Development Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, and by Research Career Scientist award RCS 10-391 from the Department of Veterans Affairs (Dr Maciejewski).
Role of the Sponsor: The Health Services Research and Development Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Veterans Affairs, the US government, Duke University, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, The University of Texas, the University of Colorado, the Group Health Research Institute, or the University of Washington.
Additional Contributions: The VA Surgical Quality Data Use Group served as scientific advisors and provided a critical review of data use and analysis presented herein.