Accepted for Publication: June 25,
Published Online: November 19, 2012.
Author Contributions:Study concept and design: Morrison, Ross, Dubose, Midwinter,
and Rasmussen. Acquisition of data: Morrison,
Dubose, Midwinter, and Rasmussen. Analysis and interpretation
of data: Morrison, Ross, Dubose, Jansen, Midwinter, and Rasmussen. Drafting of the manuscript: Morrison, Ross, Jansen,
Midwinter, and Rasmussen. Critical revision of the
manuscript for important intellectual content: Morrison, Ross,
Dubose, Jansen, Midwinter, and Rasmussen. Statistical
analysis: Morrison and Rasmussen. Obtained
funding: Midwinter and Rasmussen. Administrative,
technical, and material support: Morrison, Dubose, and Rasmussen. Study supervision: Dubose, Jansen, Midwinter, and
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None
Funding/Support: This research was
funded by the Office of the US Air Force Surgeon General and created
in the performance of a contract with the Air Force Medical Support
Agency. The governments of Great Britain and the United States have
certain rights to use this work.
Disclaimer: The viewpoints expressed
in this article are those of the authors and do not reflect the official
position of the US Department of Defense or the UK Defence Medical
Previous Presentation: This study was
presented at the Advanced Technology Applications for Combat Casualty
Care 2012 Conference; August 14, 2012; Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
Additional Contributions: We are grateful
to the staff at the UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (Academic Department
of Military Emergency Medicine, Royal Centre for Defence Medicine,
Birmingham, England) and US Joint Theater Trauma Registry (US Army
Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas)
for providing the data required for this study. We are also thankful
of Danny Sharon, MS, and colleagues of the US Air Force Medical Support
Agency, who performed elements of the statistical analysis.