Accepted for Publication: April 30, 2012.
Author Contributions: Dr Schwarze had full access to all data in this study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Brasel, Alexander, and Schwarze. Acquisition of data: Redmann and Schwarze. Analysis and interpretation of data: Paul Olson, Brasel, Redmann, Alexander, and Schwarze. Drafting of the manuscript: Paul Olson and Schwarze. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Brasel, Redmann, Alexander, and Schwarze. Statistical analysis: Paul Olson, Brasel, Redmann. Obtained funding: Schwarze. Administrative, technical, and material support: Schwarze. Study supervision: Alexander and Schwarze.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Paul Olson's work is supported by grant T32 CA090217 from the National Institutes of Health. Mr Redmann's work was supported by a Shapiro Summer Research Award from the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health. Dr Alexander's work is supported by grants K08 HS15699 and R01 HS0189960 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Dr Schwarze's work is supported by a Greenwall Faculty Scholars Award and the Department of Surgery at the University of Wisconsin.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: This work was presented in part at the 7th Annual Academic Surgical Congress; February 16, 2012; Las Vegas, Nevada.
Additional Contributions: We thank Glen Leverson, PhD, in the Department of Surgery at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, for his invaluable help with statistical analyses as well as Ann Chodara at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health for her assistance with data collection and management.