Many different techniques of colorectal anastomosis have been described in search of the technique with the lowest incidence of anastomotic leak. A systematic review of leak rates of techniques of hand-sewn colorectal anastomosis was conducted to provide a guideline for surgical residents and promote standardization of its technique. Clinical and experimental articles on colorectal anastomotic techniques and anastomotic healing published in the past 4 decades were searched. We included evidence on suture material, suture format, single- vs double-layer sutures, interrupted vs continuous sutures, hand-sewn vs stapled and compression colorectal anastomosis, and anastomotic configuration. In total, 3 meta-analyses, 26 randomized controlled trials, 11 nonrandomized comparative studies, 20 cohort studies, and 57 experimental studies were found. Results show that, for many aspects of the hand-sewn colorectal anastomosis technique, evidence is lacking. A single-layer continuous technique using inverting sutures with slowly absorbable monofilament material seems preferable. However, in contrast to stapled and compression colorectal anastomoses, the technique for hand-sewn colorectal anastomoses is nonstandardized with regard to intersuture distance, suture distance to the anastomotic edge, and tension on the suture. We believe detailed documentation of the anastomotic technique of all colorectal operations is needed to determine the role of the hand-sewn colorectal anastomosis.