Accepted for Publication: November 6, 2012.
Published Online: June 12, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.1442.
Acquisition of data: Dingeman, Barus, Chung, Clendenin, Lee, Tracy, Dennett, and Chen.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Dingeman, Barus, Johnson, Dennett, Zurakowski, and Chen.
Drafting of the manuscript: Dingeman, Barus, Johnson, Dennett, Zurakowski, and Chen.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Zurakowski.
Obtained funding: Dingeman, Tracy, and Chen.
Administrative, technical, and material support: Dingeman and Chen.
Study supervision: Dingeman, Barus, Zurakowski, and Chen.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by a pilot grant from Harvard Catalyst/The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center, Boston Children’s Hospital Surgical Foundation, and the Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented at the 65th Annual Postgraduate Assembly in Anesthesiology; December 10, 2011; New York, NY.
Additional Contributions: Terry L. Buchmiller, MD, Steven J. Fishman, MD, Tom Jaksic, MD, PhD, Craig W. Lillehei, MD, Bradley C. Linden, MD, Konstantinos Papadakis, MD, Mark Puder, MD, PhD, Shawn J. Rangel, MD, MSCE, Robert C. Shamberger, MD, C. Jason Smithers, MD, Christopher B. Weldon, MD, PhD, and Jay M. Wilson, MD, enrolled patients. Samantha Butler, PhD, participated on the Data Safety Monitoring Board. Clarissa Valim, MD, ScD, Susan McDermott, MPH, RN, Lin Huang, PhD, and Adam Simmons, MPH, assisted with randomization. Kelly Hermance-Perry, RN, and Rebecca Brennan, MS, helped with scheduling.