Accepted for Publication: January 9, 2013.
Published Online: June 19, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.2360.
Study concept and design: Musallam, Richards, and Jamali.
Acquisition of data: Soweid, Hoballah, Sfeir, and Zeineldine.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Musallam, Rosendaal, Zaatari, Tamim, Spahn, Lotta, Peyvandi, and Jamali.
Drafting of the manuscript: Musallam.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Rosendaal, Zaatari, Soweid, Hoballah, Sfeir, Zeineldine, Tamim, Richards, Spahn, Lotta, Peyvandi, and Jamali.
Statistical analysis: Musallam, Rosendaal, and Jamali.
Administrative, technical, and material support: Hoballah and Jamali.
Study supervision: Richards and Jamali.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Disclaimer: The ACS NSQIP and the participating hospitals are the source of data used herein; they have not verified and are not responsible for the statistical validity of the data analysis or the conclusions derived by the authors.