Alamowitch et al10 examined symptomatic patients using data from NASCET and the Aspirin and Carotid Endarterectomy Trial. Overall, the 30-day risk for death was higher in women than in men (2.3% vs 0.8%, P = .002), which was owing to the higher risk for fatal stroke in women (2.1% vs 1.5%, P = .26). Among symptomatic patients with more than 70% stenosis, both men and women benefited from CEA for stroke prevention. The 5-year absolute risk reduction (ARR) in stroke after CEA was similar between women (15.1%) and men (17.3%), corresponding to a 5-year number needed to treat of 7 women and 6 men to prevent one stroke. Among symptomatic patients with 50% to 69% stenosis, CEA was found to be beneficial in men but not in women. This may be because medically treated women with 50% to 69% stenosis had a lower risk for stroke than men. The 5-year risk for ipsilateral stroke in women in this group was 16.1%, if medically treated, compared with 13.1%, if surgically treated, with an ARR of 3%. Their male counterparts who were medically treated had a 5-year risk for stroke of 25.3%, which decreased to 15.3%, if surgically treated, with an ARR of 10%. This corresponds to a 5-year number needed to treat of 33 women vs only 10 men.