The management of carotid stenosis in women remains a topic of controversy. In this review article, we aimed to define carotid disease burden in women, review outcomes of carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting in women, discuss differences in practice patterns based on sex, and provide guidelines for management of women with carotid stenosis. Symptomatic women with high-grade stenosis derive benefit from carotid endarterectomy, although they have different risk profiles than men and are often not taking appropriate medical therapy. Women with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis have less stroke risk reduction with CEA than their male counterparts; therefore, they should be screened for other treatable risk factors for stroke, with the institution of lifestyle changes and the appropriate medical therapy. After medical optimization, the decision to proceed with CEA in asymptomatic women must be made by carefully assessing that the benefits of stroke risk reduction outweigh perioperative risks.
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