Accepted for Publication: May 14, 2013.
Published Online: July 17, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.2911.
Study concept and design: Kutcher, Narayan, Cohen.
Acquisition of data: Narayan, Curd, Daley, Redick, Nelson, Fiebig, Cohen.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Kutcher, Kornblith, Narayan, Cohen.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kutcher, Narayan, Curd, Fiebig, Cohen.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kutcher, Kornblith, Daley, Redick, Nelson, Cohen.
Statistical analysis: Kutcher, Kornblith, Narayan, Daley, Cohen.
Obtained funding: Cohen.
Administrative, technical, and material support: Narayan, Curd, Daley, Redick, Nelson, Cohen.
Study supervision: Kutcher.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: The work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grant T32 GM-08258-20 to Dr Kutcher, grant T32 GM-008258-25 to Dr Kornblith, and grant GM-085689 to Dr Cohen).
Previous Presentation: This paper was presented at the 84th Annual Meeting of the Pacific Coast Surgical Association; February 17, 2013; Koloa, Hawaii, and is published after peer review and revision.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the excellent research assistance of Ryan C. McCreery, BS, Ian M. Crane, BS, Molly D. Greenberg, BS, and Leslie M. Cachola, BA.