Nine retroperitoneal pelvic lymphoceles occurred in six renal transplant recipients in a total series of 280 transplants (incidence, 2%). The lymphoceles were diagnosed by intravenous pyelography between 18 days and six months following transplantation and all caused some impairment of renal function. Ipsilateral leg swelling was common. Incision and external drainage cured five of the eight lymphoceles so treated and improved renal function in all eight cases. Recurrences were treated with repeated external drainage or by intraperitoneal marsupialization. Pelvic lymphoceles should be considered in patients with decreased renal function, urinary tract infection, and thrombophlebitis after renal transplantation.