Breast cancer care is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. In this study, we provide an overview of current practices for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer for surgical practitioners who do not focus on this disease. We include studies published in high-impact, peer-reviewed journals that have informed or altered the standard of care, with preference given to large, multicenter, randomized clinical trials when available. Our study highlights that the surgical management of breast cancer has changed dramatically over the past decades. As our understanding of the disease process increases, practice guidelines will continue to evolve.