Accepted for Publication: May 16, 2013.
Published Online: September 11, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.3746.
Acquisition of data: Emr, Gatto, Roy, Satalin, Ghosh, Andrews, Habashi, Ge, Dean.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Emr, Gatto, Satalin, Ghosh, Andrews, Habashi, Marx, Ge, Wang, Vodovotz, Nieman.
Drafting of the manuscript: Emr, Andrews, Habashi, Marx, Ge, Nieman.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Emr, Gatto, Roy, Satalin, Ghosh, Snyder, Andrews, Habashi, Marx, Wang, Dean, Vodovotz, Nieman.
Statistical analysis: Emr, Gatto, Satalin, Ghosh, Andrews, Habashi.
Obtained funding: Snyder, Dean, Vodovotz, Nieman.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Emr, Gatto, Roy, Satalin, Snyder, Andrews, Habashi, Marx, Dean.
Study supervision: Emr, Roy, Snyder, Wang, Nieman.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was funded in part by National Institutes of Health grant 1R21HL092801-01.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsor had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented and awarded Best Overall Paper and Best Basic Science Paper at the 2013 Association of VA Surgeons Annual Meeting; April 21, 2013; Milwaukee, WI.