Accepted for Publication: June 25, 2013.
Published Online: September 18, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.3743.
Acquisition of data: Omer, Kar, Cornwell, Blaustein, Levine, Ali, Jneid, Paniagua, Bechara, Ruma, Bakaeen.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Omer, Kar, Cornwell. Ali, Paniagua, Bozkurt, Bakaeen.
Drafting of the manuscript: Omer, Cornwell, Ali, Jneid, Atluri, Kougias, Carabello, Bakaeen.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Omer, Kar, Cornwell, Blaustein, Levine, Jneid, Paniagua, Bechara, Ruma, Preventza, Bozkurt, Bakaeen.
Statistical analysis: Kar, Cornwell, Bozkurt.
Obtained funding: Bakaeen.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Kar, Cornwell, Blaustein, Levine, Ali, Jneid, Paniagua, Atluri, Bechara, Kougias, Ruma, Carabello.
Study supervision: Omer, Cornwell, Blaustein, Ali, Jneid, Atluri, Preventza, Bakaeen.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Previous Presentations: Presented at the 37th Annual Surgical Symposium of the Association of VA Surgeons; April 23, 2013; Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Additional Contributions: Stephen N. Palmer, PhD, ELS, contributed to the editing of the manuscript.