Accepted for Publication: March 8, 2013.
Published Online: October 2, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.2750.
Study concept and design: Loehrer, Song, Hutter.
Acquisition of data: Song.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Loehrer, Hutter.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Song, Auchincloss, Hutter.
Statistical analysis: Loehrer, Song, Auchincloss.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Song, Hutter.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented at the 93rd Annual Meeting of the New England Surgical Society; September 21, 2012; Rockport, Maine.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the National Bureau of Economic Research, through whom data were made available. These databases are maintained through Hospital Cost and Utilization Project Data Partners, including the Massachusetts Center for Health Information and Analysis, the Arizona Department of Health Services, the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration, the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission, the New Jersey Department of Health, and the New York State Department of Health.