Accepted for Publication: May 1, 2013.
Published Online: November 6, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.3970.
Study concept and design: Haut, Garcia, Brotman, Sharma, Shermock, Segal, Singh.
Acquisition of data: Haut, Shihab, Brotman, Sharma, Chelladurai, Akande, Shermock, Kebede, Singh.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Haut, Garcia, Shihab, Stevens, Chelladurai, Shermock, Segal.
Drafting of the manuscript: Haut, Garcia, Sharma, Chelladurai, Akande, Shermock, Kebede, Singh.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Haut, Shihab, Brotman, Stevens, Chelladurai, Shermock, Segal, Singh.
Statistical analysis: Shihab, Chelladurai, Shermock, Singh.
Obtained funding: Segal.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Stevens, Sharma, Chelladurai, Shermock, Kebede.
Study supervision: Haut, Sharma, Chelladurai, Segal.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by contract HHSA-290-2007-10061 I from the AHRQ.
Role of the Sponsor: The AHRQ participated in formulating the key question and reviewed planned methods and data analyses, as well as interim and final evidence reports. The AHRQ had no role in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: S. Swaroop Vedula, MD, MPH, PhD, helped with the replication of the results in 2 different statistical programs. He did not receive any financial compensation.