Accepted for Publication: March 21, 2013.
Published Online: November 20, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.4277.
Study concept and design: Goodney, Goodman, Fisher, Birkmeyer.
Acquisition of data: Goodney, Travis.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Goodney, Brooke, DeMartino, Birkmeyer.
Drafting of the manuscript: Goodney, Birkmeyer.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Goodney, Travis, Brooke, Birkmeyer.
Obtained funding: Goodman, Fisher, Birkmeyer.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Goodney, Birkmeyer.
Study supervision: Goodney, DeMartino.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Goodney was supported by a K-08 Career Development Award from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (grant 1K08HL05676-01) and an American Vascular Association/American College of Surgeons Supplemental Funding Award.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding agencies had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: This paper was presented at the Quality, Cost, and Outcomes Research Conference of the American Heart Association; May 9, 2012; Atlanta, Georgia.
Additional Contributions: We thank Jonathan S. Skinner, PhD, for his critiques and insights during the preparation of this work.