Accepted for Publication: May 15, 2013.
Published Online: December 18, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.3640.
Study concept and design: Jafari, Nguyen, Pigazzi.
Acquisition of data: Jafari, Mills.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Jafari, Halabi, Stamos, Nguyen, Carmichael.
Drafting of the manuscript: Jafari, Halabi, Nguyen, Pigazzi.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Jafari, Halabi, Stamos, Carmichael, Mills, Pigazzi.
Statistical analysis: Jafari, Nguyen.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Mills, Pigazzi.
Study supervision: Stamos, Carmichael, Mills, Pigazzi.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Stamos has had Ethicon, Olympus, NiTi/NovoGI, Adolor/GlaxoSmithKline, and Covidien training support paid to the University of California, Irvine, for clinical immersion courses for lap colectomy. Dr Mills received an Ethicon educational grant paid to the Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine. Dr Pigazzi is a consultant for Intuitive Surgical. No other disclosures were reported.
Previous Presentations: This study was presented as a poster presentation at the 84th Annual Meeting of the Pacific Coast Surgical Association; February 17, 2013; Kauai, Hawaii.
Additional Contributions: We thank Michael Phelan, PhD, for reviewing our statistics and helping to gather 2011 data.
Disclaimer: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the hospitals participating in the program are the sources of the data used herein; they did not verify and are not responsible for the statistical validity of the data analysis or the conclusions derived by the authors.