Accepted for Publication: June 21, 2013.
Published Online: February 12, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.4064.
Study concept and design: Morris, Hawn.
Acquisition of data: Deierhoi, Hawn.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Morris, Deierhoi, Hawn.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Morris Richman, Altom, Hawn.
Statistical analysis: Richman.
Obtained funding: Richman, Hawn.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Deierhoi, Altom.
Study supervision: Morris, Hawn.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the VA Health Services Research & Development Service (grant PPO 10-296) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (grant T32HS013852).
Role of the Sponsor: The VA Surgical Quality Data Use Group acted as scientific advisors and provided critical review of the data use and analysis presented in this article.
Previous Presentation: Presented in part at the 97th Annual Clinical Congress of the American Surgical Congress; October 1, 2012; Chicago, Illinois.