Accepted for Publication: July 9, 2013.
Published Online: March 19, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.4150.
Study concept and design: Bakaeen, Reda, Kougias, Huang.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Bakaeen, Gelijns, Cornwell, Omer, Al Jurdi, Anaya, Berger.
Drafting of the manuscript: Bakaeen, Berger, Anaya, Reda, Huang.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Bakaeen, Reda, Gelijns, Cornwell, Omer, Kougias, Anaya, Berger, Huang.
Obtained funding: Huang.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Reda, Cornwell, Berger.
Study supervision: Bakaeen, Cornwell, Al Jurdi, Kougias, Huang.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented in part at the Association of VA Surgeons annual meeting; April 21-23, 2013; Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Additional Information: Dr Huang is the acting director of the Cooperative Studies Program.
Additional Contributions: Stephen N. Palmer, PhD, Section of Scientific Publications, Texas Heart Institute, Houston, helped edit the manuscript.
Correction: This article was corrected on July 29, 2014, to fix an author’s affiliation.