Accepted for Publication: June 28, 2013.
Published Online: March 19, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.5278.
Study concept and design: Lamore, Hechenbleikner, Salvatori, Harris, Marohn, Efron, Wick.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Lamore, Hechenbleikner, Ha, Salvatori, Marohn, Gearhart, Wick.
Drafting of the manuscript: Lamore, Hechenbleikner, Salvatori, Gearhart, Wick.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Lamore, Hechenbleikner.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hechenbleikner, Marohn.
Study supervision: Lamore, Ha, Salvatori, Harris, Efron, Wick.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Additional Contributions: Daniel V. Samarov, PhD, mathematical statistician with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, assisted with statistical analysis and interpretation of data, and Lucy Mitchell, RN, MA, Quality Improvement Specialist and Surgical Clinical Nurse Reviewer, American College of Surgeons’ National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, assisted with acquisition and interpretation of data. None of these individuals received financial compensation for their work.