Published Online: May 7, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.222.
Study concept and design: Waits, Reames, Sheetz, Englesbe, Campbell.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Waits, Reames, Sheetz, Englesbe.
Drafting of the manuscript: Waits, Reames, Sheetz, Englesbe.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Waits, Reames, Englesbe, Campbell.
Statistical analysis: Waits, Reames, Sheetz.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Reames.
Study supervision: Waits, Englesbe, Campbell.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Additional Information: Dr Campbell is program director of the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative.
Additional Contributions: We thank John Z. Ayanian, MD, MPP, the director of the Institute for Health Policy and Innovation and Professor of Medicine at the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for his helpful comments. He was not compensated financially for his contributions.