Accepted for Publication: September 25, 2013.
Published Online: May 14, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.5694.
Study concept and design: Gadzinski, Dimick, Zeller, Miller.
Acquisition of data: Ye, Miller.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Gadzinski, Dimick, Miller.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Dimick, Ye, Zeller.
Statistical analysis: Gadzinski, Dimick, Ye.
Obtained funding: Dimick, Miller.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Dimick, Zeller.
Study supervision: Dimick, Zeller, Miller.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Dimick reported serving as a paid consultant and having an equity interest in ArborMetrix, Inc, a company that provides software and analytics for assessing hospital quality and efficiency. Dr Miller reported receiving salary support from a contract with Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan for his role as director of the Michigan Urological Surgery Improvement Collaborative. No other disclosures are reported.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by the Michigan Institute for Clinical & Health Research (grant NIH CTSA UL1RR024986 to Dr Gadzinski), the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (K08 HS018346-01A1 to Dr Miller), and the Urology Care Foundation (Astellas Rising Star in Urology Research Award to Dr Miller).
Role of the Sponsors: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.