Accepted for Publication: August 22, 2013.
Published Online: May 21, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.5680.
Study concept and design: Mihaljevic, Koprivanac, Kelava, Jarrett, Gillinov, Blackstone.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Mihaljevic, Koprivanac, Kelava, Goodman, Jarrett, Williams, Gillinov, Bajwa, Mick, Bonatti.
Drafting of the manuscript: Mihaljevic, Koprivanac, Kelava, Goodman, Williams, Bonatti.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Mihaljevic, Koprivanac, Kelava, Goodman, Jarrett, Gillinov, Bajwa, Mick, Bonatti, Blackstone.
Statistical analysis: Mihaljevic, Koprivanac, Kelava, Jarrett, Williams, Blackstone.
Obtained funding: Mihaljevic.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Goodman, Bajwa, Blackstone.
Study supervision: Mihaljevic, Gillinov, Blackstone.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Gillinov reported serving as a consultant to Intuitive Surgical, Edwards Lifesciences, St Jude Medical, Medtronic, Abbott, and On-X. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded in part by the Cleveland Clinic Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery and the Kenneth Gee and Paula Shaw, PhD, Chair in Heart Research (Dr Blackstone); the Donna and Ken Lewis Chair in Cardiothoracic Surgery; and the Peter Boyle Research Fund (Dr Mihaljevic).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: Albert Oberman, MD, PhD, at the University of Alabama at Birmingham helped develop the return-to-work survey. Penny Houghtaling, MS, performed parts of the statistical analysis and verified all numeric data in the manuscript.