Accepted for Publication: January 14, 2014.
Published Online: June 4, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.514.
Study concept and design: Halperin, Simonson, Hamdy, Abrahamson, Lautz, Goldfine.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Halperin, Ding, Simonson, Panosian, Goebel-Fabbri, Wewalka, Clancy, Foster, Vernon, Goldfine.
Drafting of the manuscript: Halperin, Ding, Simonson, Panosian, Foster, Vernon, Goldfine.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Halperin, Ding, Simonson, Panosian, Goebel-Fabbri, Wewalka, Hamdy, Abrahamson, Clancy, Lautz, Goldfine.
Statistical analysis: Halperin, Simonson.
Obtained funding: Halperin, Simonson, Lautz, Vernon, Goldfine.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Halperin, Ding, Simonson, Panosian, Goebel-Fabbri, Wewalka, Hamdy, Abrahamson, Clancy, Foster, Vernon, Goldfine.
Study supervision: Halperin, Simonson, Wewalka, Hamdy, Abrahamson, Clancy, Lautz, Vernon, Goldfine.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Hamdy serves as a consultant for Abbott Nutrition and Merck Pharmaceuticals and receives research support from Neurometrix and Metagenics. Dr Abrahamson is a member of the advisory boards of Novo Nordisk, Halozyme, Jannsen Pharmaceuticals, and WebMD Health Services. Dr Goldfine receives supplies for investigator-initiated studies from Caraco Pharmaceuticals; Amneal Pharmaceuticals; Novo Nordisk; Lifescan, a Division of Johnson & Johnson; Nestle Nutrition; and Mercodia; and grant support from Daiichi Sanky; and has served as a consultant for Novo Nordisk. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases grants RC1-DK086918, R56-DK095451, and P30-DK03836; the Marietta Blau grant ICM-2010-02797 from the Österreichischer Austausdienst; and the Herbert Graetz Fund. Covidien provided funds for the surgical costs of participants with BMI less than 35 who were randomized to undergo surgery; Lifescan, a Division of Johnson & Johnson, provided home glucose monitoring supplies; Nestle Nutrition Inc provided Boost; and Mercodia provided assay materials.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the support of the Joslin Clinical Research Center and thank its philanthropic donors.