Accepted for Publication: December 23, 2013.
Published Online: June 11, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.146.
Study concept and design: Miller, Mims, Paull, Mills, Lee, Hemphill.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Miller, Mims, Paull, Williams, Neily.
Drafting of the manuscript: Miller, Mims, Paull, Neily, Mills.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Miller, Mims, Paull, Williams, Mills, Lee, Hemphill.
Statistical analysis: Miller, Paull.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Miller, Mims, Paull, Neily, Mills, Hemphill.
Study supervision: Paull.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This material is the result of work supported with resources and the use of facilities at the Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Patient Safety, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Association of Veterans Affairs Surgeons; April 22, 2013; Milwaukee, Wisconsin.