Accepted for Publication: December 27, 2013.
Published Online: June 11, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.296.
Study concept and design: Joseph, Pandit, Zangbar, Green, O’Keeffe, Vercruysse, Friese, Rhee.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Joseph, Pandit, Zangbar, Kulvatunyou, Hashmi, Green, Tang, Vercruysse, Fain, Friese, Rhee.
Drafting of the manuscript: Joseph, Pandit, Zangbar, Hashmi, Vercruysse, Rhee.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Joseph, Pandit, Zangbar, Hashmi, Tang, Friese, Rhee.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Green, O’Keeffe, Vercruysse.
Study supervision: Joseph, O’Keeffe, Vercruysse, Fain, Friese, Rhee.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented at the American College of Surgeons 2013 Annual Clinical Congress; October 9, 2013; Washington, DC; and received the Excellence in Research Award, Geriatric Surgery.