Accepted for Publication: October 29, 2013.
Published Online: June 18, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.23.
Study concept and design: Black, Buchholz, Smith.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Black, Jiang, Smith.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Black, Kuerer, Buchholz, Smith.
Statistical analysis: Jiang.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Black, Buchholz, Smith.
Study supervision: Black, Buchholz.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the efforts of the Applied Research Program, National Cancer Institute; the Office of Research, Development and Information, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; Information Management Services Inc; and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program tumor registries in the creation of the SEER-Medicare–linked database. Stephanie Deming, ELS, of MD Anderson Scientific Publications, provided editorial assistance. No financial compensation was given.