Accepted for Publication: December 2, 2013.
Published Online: June 25, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.629.
Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: All authors.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: All authors.
Obtained funding: Dimick.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Dimick.
Study supervision: Dimick.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Krell reported having received a payment from Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Michigan for data entry unrelated to the submitted work. Dr Dimick reported having a financial interest in ArborMetrix Inc. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study is supported by grant 5T32CA009672-22 from the National Institutes of Health (Dr Krell), Career Development Award K08 HS017765 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality ( Dr Dimick), and research grant R21DK084397 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (Dr Dimick).
Role of the Sponsors: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The ACS-NSQIP and the hospitals participating in the ACS-NSQIP are the source of the original data and cannot verify or be held responsible for the statistical validity of the data analysis or the conclusions derived by the authors.