Accepted for Publication: October 23, 2013.
Published Online: July 2, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.77.
Study concept and design: Drake, Florence, Flum.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Drake, Flum.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Drake.
Obtained funding: Flum.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Mottey, Farrohki, Florence, Flum.
Study supervision: Florence, Mock, Steele, Thirlby, Flum.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Drake was supported by a T32 training fellowship from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and Ms Mottey was supported by the University of Washington Medical Student Research Training Program. The Life Discovery Fund of Washington State and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality support SCOAP-CERTAIN (Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program and Clinical Effectiveness Research Translation Network) research projects.
Role of the Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Information: The authors represent the writing group for the Washington State Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program (SCOAP), a program of the Foundation for Health Care Quality and the Clinical Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN). More information at http://www.scoap.org and http://www.becertain.org.