Accepted for Publication: March 28, 2014.
Published Online: July 23, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.1216.
Study concept and design: Kazaure, Yoon, Wren.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Kazaure, Martin, Wren.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kazaure, Wren.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Martin, Yoon, Wren.
Statistical analysis: Kazaure, Wren.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Martin, Wren.
Study supervision: Yoon, Wren.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Disclaimer: The ACS-NSQIP and the hospitals participating in the ACS-NSQIP are the source of the data used herein; they have not verified and are not responsible for the statistical validity of the data analysis or the conclusions derived by the authors.
Previous Presentation: Data in this study were presented at the Pacific Coast Surgical Association meeting; February 16, 2014; Dana Point, California.