Accepted for Publication: April 25, 2014.
Published Online: August 6, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.1208.
Study concept and design: Ley, Wiegmann, Blaha, Blocker, R. Karl, C. Karl, Taggart, Starnes, Gewertz.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Catchpole, Ley, Wiegmann, Blaha, Shouhed, Gangi, Blocker, Taggart, Starnes, Gewertz.
Drafting of the manuscript: Catchpole, Ley, C. Karl, Taggart, Gewertz.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Catchpole, Ley, Wiegmann, Blaha, Shouhed, Gangi, Blocker, R. Karl, Starnes, Gewertz.
Statistical analysis: Catchpole, Blocker.
Obtained funding: Catchpole, Wiegmann, Gewertz.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Ley, Blaha, Shouhed, Gangi, Taggart.
Study supervision: Catchpole, Ley, Blaha, Shouhed, Gewertz.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant W81XWH-10-1-1039 from the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center of the US Department of Defense, which seeks to reengineer teamwork and technology for 21st-century trauma care (Dr Gewertz).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented at the Pacific Coast Surgical Association Annual Meeting; February 16, 2014; Dana Point, California.
Additional Contributions: We thank our other project contributors: Ray Chu, MD, Heidi Hotz, RN, Steven Rudd, MD, Shannon Webert, RN, Brittany Dixon, BS, Elena Fomchenko, BS, Jean-Phillip Okhovat, BS, Mark Paulsen, BS, Tracy Reese, BS, and Cynthia Huang, BS, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California; Robert M. Rush, MD, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington; Eduardo Salas, PhD, Institute for Simulation and Training, University of Central Florida, Orlando; and Sacha Duff, MS, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Drs Chu, Rudd, and Salas and Ms Hotz were coinvestigators on the grant and were compensated for their work. Dr Rush was a grant coinvestigator but was not compensated (as a federal employee). Ms Webert was employed to assist in data collection. Mr Duff was a PhD student funded through the project. Mss Dixon, Fomchenko, Reese, and Huang and Messrs Okhovat and Paulsen were also employed to assist in data collection. We also thank all the emergency department and trauma staff who allowed us to observe them at work.