Accepted for Publication: January 10, 2014.
Published Online: August 20, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.351.
Study concept and design: Richman, Itani, Hawn.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Richman, Deierhoi, Henderson, Hawn.
Drafting of the manuscript: Richman.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Itani, Henderson, Hawn.
Statistical analysis: Richman.
Obtaining funding: Richman, Hawn.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Deierhoi.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Richman reported receiving funding from a career development award from the VA Health Services Research and Development program. Dr Itani reported receiving institutional support from Merck and Trius and serving on an advisory board for Forest Pharmaceuticals. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Richman was supported by VA Health Services Research and Development Career Development Award CDA2 09-014-3. This study was funded by grant PPO 10-296 from the VA Health Services Research and Development program.
Role of the Sponsor: All funding for this study was provided by the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The VHA approved the study protocol, and all study data were obtained from VHA databases. The VHA was not involved in the design and conduct of the study; the management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the US Government.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the VA Surgical Quality Data Use Group for its role as scientific advisors and for the critical review of data use and analysis presented in the Article.