Accepted for Publication: May 6, 2014.
Published Online: September 3, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.1338.
Study concept and design: Ferraris, Bolanos, Mahan, Saha.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Ferraris, Bolanos, Martin.
Drafting of the manuscript: Ferraris, Bolanos, Martin.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Ferraris, Martin.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Martin, Mahan, Saha.
Study supervision: Ferraris.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Ferraris has served on an advisory board for Haemonetics, participated in a continuing medical education event for CMEology/Baxter Healthcare, and has served as an unpaid consultant for Novo Nordisk. Dr Saha has participated in research trials for CVRx and Baxter HealthCare. No other disclosures were reported.
Disclaimer: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the hospitals participating in the database are the source of the data used herein; they have not verified and are not responsible for the statistical validity of the data analysis or the conclusions derived by the authors.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented at the 2014 Association of VA Surgeons Annual Meeting; April 6, 2014; New Haven, Connecticut.