Accepted for Publication: May 5, 2014.
Published Online: September 3, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.2044.
Study concept and design: Graham, Itani, Hawn.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Graham, Singletary, Richman, Maddox, Hawn.
Drafting of the manuscript: Graham.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Graham, Singletary, Richman.
Obtained funding: Hawn.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Graham, Singletary.
Study supervision: Graham, Maddox, Itani, Hawn.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study is funded by grant IIR 09-347 from VA Health Services Research and Development. Drs Richman and Maddox are supported by career development awards from VA Health Services Research and Development.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funder had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the US Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government.
Previous Presentation: This work was presented at the 2014 Annual Meeting of the Association of VA Surgeons; April 6, 2014; New Haven, Connecticut.