Accepted for Publication: June 2, 2014.
Published Online: September 10, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.1393.
Study concept and design: Ernst, Lavedan, Lynch, Johanning.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Ernst, Hall, Schmid, Seever, Johanning.
Drafting of the manuscript: Ernst, Hall, Schmid, Seever, Johanning.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Ernst, Schmid, Lavedan, Lynch, Johanning.
Statistical analysis: Ernst, Hall, Schmid, Johanning.
Obtained funding: Hall.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Seever, Lavedan, Johanning.
Study supervision: Hall, Johanning.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This research was supported in part by the US Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Office of Research and Development, and Health Services Research and Development (CDA 08-281).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funder assisted with the design and conduct of the study; management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript. The funder had no role in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this review are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government.
Previous Presentation: The study was presented at the 38th Annual Surgical Symposium of the Association of VA Surgeons; April 6, 2014; New Haven, Connecticut.