Published Online: September 17, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.1779.
Study concept and design: Both authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Both authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kerfoot
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kissane.
Obtained funding: Kerfoot.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Both authors.
Study supervision: Both authors.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Kerfoot was a paid educational consultant to the legal team defending Intuitive Surgical Inc in a 2013 malpractice case. No other disclosures are reported.
Funding/Support: This research was funded by Intuitive Surgical Inc.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: Intuitive Surgical Inc had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: The paper was presented at the 38th Annual Surgical Symposium of the Association of VA Surgeons; April 8, 2014; New Haven, Connecticut.