Published Online: September 24, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.373.
Study concept and design: Mull, Chen, Shwartz, Itani.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Mull, Chen, Shwartz, Rosen.
Drafting of the manuscript: Mull, Itani.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Mull, Chen, Shwartz.
Obtained funding: Rosen
Administrative, technical, or material support: Chen, Itani.
Study supervision: Rosen.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This research was funded by VA Health Services Research and Development Service grant SDR 07-002 (Dr Rosen, principal investigator).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The VA Health Services Research and Development Service had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: This paper was presented at the 38th Annual Surgical Symposium of the Association of VA Surgeons; April 7, 2014; New Haven, Connecticut.