Accepted for Publication: February 11, 2014.
Published Online: October 15, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.556.
Study concept and design: Shirvani, Chang, Welsh, Buchholz, Swisher, Smith.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Shirvani, Jiang, Chang, Likhacheva, Swisher, Smith.
Drafting of the manuscript: Shirvani, Welsh.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Shirvani, Jiang, Chang, Likhacheva, Buchholz, Swisher, Smith.
Statistical analysis: Shirvani, Jiang, Likhacheva, Swisher, Smith.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Swisher, Smith.
Study supervision: Chang, Welsh, Smith.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Welsh reports having served as a consultant at Reflexion Medical. Dr Likhacheva reports receiving research funding from Elekta Incorporated. Dr Swisher reports having served as a consultant at GlaxoSmithKline. Dr Smith reports receiving research funding from Varian Medical Systems. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant RP101207 from the Cancer Prevention & Research Institute of Texas (Dr Smith) and by grants CA16672 and T32CA77050 from the Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: The efforts of the Applied Research Program, National Cancer Institute, the Office of Research, Development and Information, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Information Management Services, Inc, and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program tumor registries in the creation of the SEER-Medicare database contributed to this study.